Here's a website that lists types of home construction: Types of Home or House Construction: Conventional Prefab Modular Panelized
Of course, conventional home construction covers a lot of territory: frame, masonry, post & beam, ... My current home is masonry (concrete block w/stucco brick). I'm thinking of using prefab concrete panels for my next house; it's quicker and hopefully cheaper.
If you're interested in learning more about building a home, my book, Building a Cool House for Hot Times without Scorching the Pocketbook, gives the background of my home construction process; it's available from Barnes & Noble: Building a Cool House for Hot Times Without Scorching the Pocketbook, Joy V. Smith, Book - Barnes & Noble
It's #7 on this B&N top ten best sellers list: Barnes & Noble.com Books - Architecture, Domestic->Amateurs' manuals